2. DESCRIPTION

2.1 Background of the invention:

Tamarind ( Tamarindus indica L) is an underutilized crop grown in Asia and Africa, and thrives best in drier areas where many other crops fail to perform. The pulp of tamarind forms the “Tamarind of Commerce” and it is the richest source of tartaric acid (8 - 18%), the chief acidulant used preparation of foods in Asian and African countries. It has a domestic as well as an international market. The main export products are fresh fruits mainly of the sweet tamarind varieties, pulp, seed kernel powder and the paste. The tamarind exporting countries are India, Indonesia, the Philippines and Thailand. The western countries use it for culinary and industrial purposes and manufacture of drugs.

Tamarind is grown prominently in the dry zone of Sri Lanka and used as a flavoring agent. It is enriched in both nutritional and medicinal values. Therefore tamarind can be used to prepare many value added products such as RTS drinks, Cordials, chutney and toffees with high taste and need to popularize throughout the country to improve the nutritional status of the Sri Lankan through use of underutilized crops. At the same time it creates self employments for the rural people and have a potential for increasing rural
farm income, export earnings and several other social benefits.
Nutritional composition of Tamarind
Nutrition in 100 g tamarind is as follows.

Moisture                                  20.9 g
Energy                                     283 k. cal
Protein                                     3.1 g
Fat                                           0.1g
Starch                                      67.4 g
Calcium                                   101 mg
Phosphorus                              140 mg
Iron                                         10.9 mg
Carotene (Vitamin A)             60 mg
Riboflavin (Vitamin B)           170 mg
Thiamin (Vitamin B)               4.1 mg
Vitamin C                               3 mg

Preservation of tamarind as a pulp, preparation of ready to serve drink and cool/ iced packets, cordials and chutneys are possible opportunities for small-scale enterprises concerned with tamarind. As the capital required is low and the technology sought is not complex, many can adopt this as a profitable industry.

2.2 Sanitation

This is a very important area in the food industry. Proper equipments and machines are important in the prevention of food poisoning. Therefore, it is important to use stainless steel instruments in the processing of acidic products like tamarind. in addition cleaning the utensils properly, cleanliness of the food processing unit, proper covering of the processed food to protect from files, boiling the empty bottles well in boiling water before being filled with drinks, mixing food grade preservatives in the appropriate amounts are also important.

Bottles once used should be washed well before the reuse. For this they should be washed with 1 % caustic soda solution followed soap containing solution and again with pure water. before filling instant drinks, bottled should be immerses in boiling water for about 20 minutes.

1. FIELD OF THE INVENTION:

This invention provides novel food products from Tamarind fruit under the category of tamarind paste, instant drinks, ice packets, cordial and chutney. The popularization of these products s will create income for rural people and enhance the demand for tamarind in the country .and also reduces the foreign exchange for importing the tamarind pulp.

ABSTRACT

Tamarind is grown prominently in the dry zone of Sri Lanka and used only as a flavoring agent. It is enriched in both nutritional and medicinal values. Therefore tamarind can be used to prepare many value added food products such as RTS drinks, cordials, chutney and toffees etc. with high taste and need to popularize throughout the country to improve the nutritional status of the Sri Lankans through use of underutilized crops. At the same time it creates self employments for the rural people and has a potential for increasing rural farm income, export earnings and several other social benefits.

Preservation of tamarind as a pulp, preparation of ready to serve drink and cool/ iced packets, cordials and chutneys are possible opportunities for small-scale enterprises concerned with tamarind. As the capital required is low and the technology sought is not complex, many can adopt this as a profitable industry. It has been found out that by producing 1000 cups of tamarind paste, 2000 RTS bottles, 4000 ice packets, 200 cordial bottles and 140 chutney bottles one can easily earn about Rs.30000 per monthly. Further it creates high demand for this underutilized fruit and introduces variety of foods through value addition.

PRODUCTION OF TAMARIND BASED FOOD PRODUCTS

Dr. Swarnashika Tilakaratne
Senior Research Officer
Institute of Post Harvest Technology
Jayanthi Mawatha,
Anuradhapura

2.3 Production of tamarind based products

Steps in the production / Processing

The processing pathway is simple, comprising of 4 steps.

  1. Preparation of tamarind pulp and make as a paste by further heating
  2. preparation of instant drinks and frozen spackles
  3. Preparation of Tamarind cordial
  4. Preparation of Tamarind chutney

Production process
Availability of Raw Materials
Tamarind the main raw material should be will-ripen and free from insect pests and fungi, Over-matured and dried tamarind should be avoided. Good tamarind leads to high quality products.
Selection of Equipments

It is important to use stainless steel materials, as tamarind is acidic.

2.3.1. Preparation of Tamarind Paste

 Tamarind is mixed with water at 1:1 ratio and heat about 5 minutes & stir well. After that seeds are removed using suraj Apparatus or using pulping machine and the pulp is obtained. to make the pulp more can contracted , of should be heated for another 10 minutes is a flat bottom utensil, Potassium meta bi sulphite, a preservative, should be mixed at a ratio of 100 mg per kilo gram of pulp. That is to avoid the formatives of fungus. this mixture is poured to plastic cups washed in boiled water and seal well. Labeling may be done at coring.
Materials required

Tamarind         12.5 Kg
Salt                  50 Kg

Potassium Meta Bi Supphite 1.25 g (half a tea spoon)

Yield : Plastic cups 60 (each 125 g)  It can be keep up to 01 year without deterioration.

2.3.2. Tamarind Instant Drink (Ready to Serve)

First prepare tamarind pulp. Next mix sugar with water, heat well and then mix tamarind pulp to this and the mixture should be heated at 95 oC for 15 minutes followed by the addition of sodium benzoate at the recommended rate viz. 100 mg Per 1 L. The Bottle should be filled immediately at that temperature and sealed; Labeling may be done when cooled.
Materials Required

Water                          19 L
Tamarind                     2.5 Kg
Sugar                           3.5 Kg
Salt                              50 g
Sodium Benzoate 2.5 g (one tea spoon)

Yield : Bottles 100 (each 190 ml)

2.3.3. Tamarind Ice Packets

First follow guidelines as for instant drink. 50 ml of drink is filled to polythene sacks, each 2" in width and 5" length) Keep in the freezer.

Materials Required

Water                          10 L
Tamarind                     1 Kg 300 g
Sugar                           1 Kg 800 g
Salt                              25 g

Yield : Polythene Packets 200 (each 50 ml)

 2.3.4. Tamarind Chutney

Tamarind pulp – 01 Kg
Dates/Sultana  -0.5  Kg
Sugar-              -1.2 Kg
Vinegar- 350 ml
Chillie powder- 50 g
Mustard=50g
Ginger -40 g
Garlic -20 g
Salt -10g
Cinnamon-10 g
Cloves -4g
Cardamom -3g

Yield-  290g x 07 No of bottles

2.3.5. Tamarind Cordial

Tamarind pulp-                                 475g
Water-                                              550ml
Sugar-                                              570g
CMC (Carboxy Methyl Cellulose)    1.5g
Sodium Benzovate                           0.6g
Yield: 01 bottle (750 ml)

2.4 Materials/ equipments required for the processing of tamarind based products

  1. Basins for the preparation of tamarind pulp
  2. suraj apparent to remove seeds
  3. Stainless source pan and stove (Gas/Fire wood)
  4. Stainless steel of Plastic
  5. Empty plastic cups and lids
  6. Weighing balance
  7. Labels

For Tamarind instant Drinks

  1. Suraj apparatus to remove tamarind seeds
  2. Basing
  3. Stainless source pan
  4. Gas cooker
  5. Empty bottles, caps, capping machine
  6. Jugs
  7. Stainless source pan
  8. Labels

Tamarind Ice Packets.

  1. Suraj apparatus to remove seeds
  2. Refrigerator
  3. Poly sealer
  4. Basins
  5. Polythine
  6. Stainless source pan
  7. Calibrated jugs

Packaging Requirements

Plastic cups used to pack Youghuts can be used as a packaging materials for tamarind pulp. Cups should be covered with lids.Tamarind instant drink should be bottled in 190 ml bottles and sealed with tonic hids. For frozen tamarind drink packets, LLDPE grade polythene is used.

Labeling

The Following should be marked clearly in labels.

  1. Name of the Product
  2. Trade mark
  3. Net Weight (g/mg/pf producer)
  4. Name and address if producer
  5. Stock number
  6. List of ingredients
  7. Date of expiry
  8. Date of manufacture
  9. Price

Factors to be considered in determining the cost

Fixed Assets

  1. Buildings
  2. Equipments

Variable Cost

    1. Raw materials
    2. Packaging
    3. Labeling
    4. Fuel
    5. Electricity
    6. Water
    7. Cost of publicity
    8. Transport costs
    9. Wastes
    10. Other expenses

Fixed cost

  1. Rent
  2. Salaries
  3. Registration of enterprises
  4. Repairs

In addition to the above products, Rasam and toffees can also be prepared using tamarind.

Prices of equipments  (

                                        Refrigerator                 Rs. 36000.00
                                       Pulper machine                       Rs. 60000.00
                                       Bottle sealer                            Rs.  5000.00
                                       Polythene sealer                      Rs,  3000.00
                                       Stainless steel utensils            Rs,   3000.00
                                       Plastic basins etc.                    Rs.  8200.00
                                       Price of 1200 plastic cups       Rs.  1800.00

RTS bottles and caps (100 bottles/day )                        Rs.  2000.00
Bottles per month ( ( 20 X 200)                                     Rs  40000.00 

2.5 Cost of production for tamarind paste

Price per plastic cup                                                       Rs. 2.00
Plastic cups per day ( Paste 125g)                                 60
Quantity of tamarind needed per day                           60 X 250
                                                                                         1000
                                                                                      7.5 Kg
Cost for raw material                                             Rs. 800.00
Plastic cups     (60)                                                Rs. 120.00
Depreciation of equipments ( 06 months )              Rs.  15.00
Labour                                                                  Rs.  450.00
Fuel and miscellaneous                                          Rs.  15.00
Production cost per 60 cups                                  Rs. 1390.00
Cost per cup                                                         Rs. 23.16
25 %  Profit                                                          Rs. 5.80
Sale price,                                                            Rs. 28.96
25 % commission                                                 Rs. 7.24
Sale price include commission per cup                  Rs. 36.20

2.6 Production cost for RTS
Bottles per day 100 ( 190ml)

Tamarind                                                         Rs.200.00
Sugar                                                               Rs.210.00
Salt                                                                  Rs.5.00
Depreciation of Equipment                              Rs.5.00
Labour charges                                               Rs.450
Cost per 100 bottles                                        Rs.1770.00
Cost per bottle                                                 Rs.17.70
25 %  Profit                                                     Rs.4.40
Sale price,                                                        Rs.22.10
commission  per bottle                                    Rs.3.90
Sale price of a bottle                                       Rs.25.00

Ice Packets

RTS quantity per ice packet                            50 ml    
Price per 190 ml RTS                                      Rs,22.10   
Sale price, per 50 ml                                        Rs.5.52
25 % commission                                            Rs.1.38 
Packaging Price                                               Rs.1.10
Sale price per ice packet with commission      Rs.8.00 

2.7 Production cost for Cordial bottle
Bottles per day 10 ( 750 ml)

Tamarind                                                          Rs.380.00
Sugar                                                               Rs.350.00
Salt + other ingredients                                     Rs.15.00
Depreciation of Equipment                               Rs.5.00
Cost per 10 bottles                                          Rs.750.00
Cost per 10 empty bottle                                 Rs.250.00
Labour charges                                               Rs.900.00
Total production cost per 10 cordial bottle     Rs.1900.00
Production cost per bottle                              Rs.190
25 %  Profit                                                   Rs.47.50
Sale price,                                                     Rs.237.50
20 % commission                                          Rs.47.50
Sale price of a cordial bottle                          Rs.285.00

2.8 Production cost for tamarind chutney bottle
Bottles per day 07 ( 290 g)

Tamarind pulp – 01 Kg
Dates/Sultana  -0.25  Kg
Sugar-              -1.2 Kg
Vinegar- 350 ml
Chillie powder- 50 g
Mustard=50g
Ginger -40 g
Garlic -20 g
Salt -10g
Cinnamon-10 g
Cloves -4g
Cardamom -3g

Yield-  290g x 07 No of bottles
Tamarind                                                         Rs.120.00
Sugar                                                               Rs.85.00
Sultana                                                            Rs.130.00
Vinegar                                                           Rs.30.00
Chillie powder                                                Rs.15.00
Depreciation of Equipment                             Rs.5.00
Spices                                                            Rs.90.00
Labour charges                                              Rs.225.00
Cost per 07 bottles                                        Rs.700.00
Cost per 07 empty bottle                               Rs.100.00
Total production cost per 10 cordial bottle    Rs.800.00
Production cost per bottle                             Rs.114
25 %  Profit                                                  Rs.28
Sale price,                                                    Rs.142
20 % commission                                         Rs.28
Sale price of a cordial bottle                         Rs.170.00

2.9 Proposed profit per month by production of

1. No. of RTS bottles per month   =100*20
            Profit per month                          = 4.40*2000 =Rs.8800

2. Tamarind paste per month    = 50 *20
            Profit  per month                   =Rs. 5.80*1000 =Rs.5800

3. No of ice packets per day 200, for month =4000
      Profit per month                     =  1.38*200= Rs.5520

4.. No. of cordial bottles per month   =10*20
            Profit per month                     =475*20 =Rs.9500

5.  No. of chutney bottles per month   =07*20
            Profit per month                   =  28*7*20 =Rs.3920

Total profit per month by processing of tamarind based products-   Rs. 33540.00

 2.10 Availability of the equipments and materials:

Packaging materials    - Ceylon Package Private Limited
                                      J.R.D. De  Silva Mawatha
                                      Colombo 13

Yogurt cups                - Starline Enterprises,
  11, 1 st lane
  Rathmalana.

Pulper machine           1. Industrial Development Board
                                          Katubeddha
                                         Moratuwa

                                    2. Udaya Industriies
                                          Weligalla
                                          Kandy